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Fitzgerald is not one of the great American writers of to-day. Fitzgerald's goal was to produce a literary work which would truly prove himself as a writer, [] and Gatsby did not have the commercial success of his two previous novels, This Side of Paradise and The Beautiful and Damned.

Although the novel went through two initial printings, some of these copies remained unsold years later. In , Fitzgerald suffered a third and fatal heart attack, and died believing his work forgotten.

In , a group of publishing executives created the Council on Books in Wartime. The council's purpose was to distribute paperback Armed Services Editions books to soldiers fighting in the Second World War.

The Great Gatsby was one of these books. The books proved to be "as popular as pin-up girls " among the soldiers, according to the Saturday Evening Post ' s contemporary report.

By , full-length articles on Fitzgerald's works were being published, and the following year, "the opinion that Gatsby was merely a period piece had almost entirely disappeared.

By , the book was steadily selling 50, copies per year, and renewed interest led The New York Times editorialist Mizener to proclaim the novel "a classic of twentieth-century American fiction.

Following the novel's revival, later critical writings on The Great Gatsby focus in particular on Fitzgerald's disillusionment with the American dream [a] in the context of the hedonistic Jazz Age , [b] a name for the era which Fitzgerald claimed to have coined.

Pearson published an essay in which he asserted that Fitzgerald "has come to be associated with this concept of the American dream more than any other writer of the twentieth century.

Briefly defined, it is the belief that every man, whatever his origins, may pursue and attain his chosen goals, be they political, monetary, or social.

It is the literary expression of the concept of America: The land of opportunity. However, Pearson noted that "Fitzgerald's unique expression of the American dream lacks the optimism, the sense of fulfillment, so evident in the expressions of his predecessors.

Echoing Pearson's interpretation, scholar Sarah Churchwell similarly views The Great Gatsby to be a "cautionary tale of the decadent downside of the American dream.

The green light that shines at the end of the dock of Daisy's house across the Sound from Gatsby's house is frequently mentioned in the background of the plot.

It has variously been interpreted as a symbol of Gatsby's longing for Daisy and, more broadly, of the American dream.

In addition to exploring the trials and tribulations of achieving the American dream during the Jazz Age, The Great Gatsby explores societal gender expectations as a theme.

Although early scholars viewed the character of Daisy Buchanan to be a "monster of bitchery," [] later scholars such as Leland S.

Person, Jr. She becomes the unwitting 'grail' in Gatsby's adolescent quest to remain ever-faithful to his seventeen-year-old conception of self.

Daisy is thus "reduced to a golden statue, a collector's item which crowns Gatsby's material success. Journalist Nick Gillespie interprets The Great Gatsby as a story of the underlying permanence of class differences , even "in the face of a modern economy based not on status and inherited position but on innovation and an ability to meet ever-changing consumer needs.

As Gillespie states, "While the specific terms of the equation are always changing, it's easy to see echoes of Gatsby ' s basic conflict between established sources of economic and cultural power and upstarts in virtually all aspects of American society.

Environmental criticism of Gatsby seeks to place the novel and its characters in historical context almost a century after its original publication.

These interpretations argue that Jay Gatsby and The Great Gatsby can be viewed as the personification and representation of human-caused climate change , as "Gatsby's life depends on many human-centered, selfish endeavors" which are "in some part responsible for Earth's current ecological crisis.

Like many of Fitzgerald's works, The Great Gatsby has been accused of displaying anti-Semitism through the use of Jewish stereotypes.

Richard Levy, author of Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution , claims that Wolfsheim is "pointedly connected Jewishness and crookedness".

In a article for Commentary , Milton Hindus, an assistant professor of humanities at the University of Chicago , stated that while he believed the book was "excellent" on balance, Wolfsheim "is easily its most obnoxious character", and "the novel reads very much like an anti-Semitic document".

Hindus argued that the Jewish stereotypes displayed by Wolfsheim were typical of the time period in which the novel was written and set, and that its anti-Semitism was of the "habitual, customary, 'harmless,' unpolitical variety.

A article by Arthur Krystal agreed with Hindus's assessment that Fitzgerald's use of Jewish caricatures was not driven by malice and merely reflected commonly-held beliefs of his time.

He notes the accounts of Frances Kroll, a Jewish woman and secretary to Fitzgerald, who claimed that Fitzgerald was hurt by accusations of anti-Semitism and responded to critiques of Wolfsheim by claiming that he merely "fulfilled a function in the story and had nothing to do with race or religion".

The Great Gatsby has been adapted several times as television films and as episodes for various dramatic series:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Scott Fitzgerald. This article is about the novel. Not to be confused with Gadsby novel. Further information: Roaring Twenties and Jazz Age.

Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Sayre. So we beat on, boats against the current,. Ginevra King left —whom Fitzgerald romantically pursued—inspired the character of Daisy Buchanan.

Edith Cummings right was an amateur golfer who inspired the character of Jordan Baker. The now-demolished Beacon Towers partly served as an inspiration for Gatsby's home.

Oheka Castle was another North Shore inspiration for the novel's setting. Early drafts of the book cover made by illustrator Francis Cugat.

The thing that chiefly interests the basic Fitzgerald is still the florid show of modern American life—and especially the devil's dance and that goes on at the top.

He is unconcerned about the sweating and suffering of the nether herd; what engrosses him is the high carnival of those who have too much money to spend, and too much time for the spending of it.

Their idiotic pursuit of sensation, their almost incredible stupidity and triviality, their glittering swinishness—these are the things that go into his notebook.

Novels portal s portal. Yet Gatsby also explores the dream's destructive power. Americans pay a great price for that dream. Paul hospital.

It is a famous example of a lost film. Reviews suggest that it may have been the most faithful adaptation of the novel, but a trailer of the film at the National Archives is all that is known to exist.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Checkmark Books. The Great Gatsby challenges the myth of the American Dream , glowing like the green light on Daisy's dock in the Roaring '20s.

He captured and distilled the essence of the American spirit. It is associated with a state of nervous stimulation, not unlike that of big cities behind the lines of a war.

This was the generation whose girls dramatized themselves as flappers, the generation that corrupted its elders and eventually overreached itself less through lack of morals than through lack of taste.

By the universal preoccupation with sex had become a nuisance. At first petting was a desperate adventure even under such favorable conditions, but presently confidences were exchanged and the old commandment broke down.

Although knowledge of the background adds dimension to the novel, it can stand very well without it. The garish, frenetic world of the s is gone.

Near the end of her life Zelda Fitzgerald said that Gatsby was based on 'a neighbor named Von Guerlach or something who was said to be General Pershing 's nephew and was in trouble over bootlegging.

Her pictorial counterpart was drawn by the American cartoonist John Held, Jr. Editor Matthew J. Bruccoli notes: "This name combines two automobile makes: The sporty Jordan and the conservative Baker electric.

He seeded his masterpiece there, drawing on his own experiences on 'that slender riotous island,' and in a room above the garage turning out short stories that prefigured Gatsby.

Fitzgerald wrote to Perkins: "I feel I have an enormous power in me now. This book will be a consciously artistic achievement and must depend on that as the first books did not.

Scott Fitzgerald's ledger Fitzgerald wrote to Perkins: "For Christ's sake don't give anyone that jacket you're saving for me. I've written it into the book.

It had a garish dust jacket and I remember being embarrassed by the violence, bad taste and slippery look of it. It looked like the book jacket for a book of bad science fiction.

Scot told me not to be put off by it, that it had to do with a billboard along a highway in Long Island that was important in the story.

I took it off to read the book. Trimalchio in West Egg. Unfortunately, it was too late to change. And when all are linked together, the weight of the story as a revelation of life and as a work of art becomes apparent.

The story for all its basic triviality has a fine texture; a careful and brilliant finish What gives the story distinction is something quite different from the management of the action or the handling of the characters; it is the charm and beauty of the writing.

Scott Fitzgerald died in , he thought he was a failure. When it was published in this ironic tale of life on Long Island, at a time when gin was the national drink and sex the national obsession, it received critical acclaim.

In it Mr. Fitzgerald was at his best. One soldier said that books with 'racy' passages were as popular as 'pin-up girls'.

Retrieved March 18, Batchelor, Bob Retrieved July 15, The New York Post. May 5, Bruccoli, Matthew Joseph , ed. Scott Fitzgerald 2nd rev.

Retrieved February 25, Little, Brown Book Group. Scott Fitzgerald". Louis Post-Dispatch. Louis , Missouri. Retrieved January 2, Washington: Library of Congress.

Retrieved May 22, Indiana University Press. A Historical Guide to F. Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 11, Teaching F.

Prestwick House. The Dallas Morning News. Dallas , Texas. College Literature. Kuehl, John; Bryer, Jackson R. Macmillan Publishing Company.

Scott April []. In Wilson, Edmund ed. The Crack-Up. New Directions. Bruccoli, Matthew J. The Great Gatsby.

The Cambridge Edition of the Works of F. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bloom, Harold ed. New York: Chelsea House Publishers.

Tanner, Tony ed. The Great Gatsy. London : Penguin Books. Turnbull, Andrew ed. The Letters of F. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Tredell, Nicolas ed. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby. Columbia Critical Guides. New York: Columbia University Press. Gross, Dalton Literature in Context.

Westport, Connecticut : Greenwood Press. A Moveable Feast. New York: Scribner. Speed; Burns, Edward M. University of Michigan Press.

June 18, Retrieved January 1, The F. Scott Fitzgerald Review. Scott Fitzgerald: Voice of the Jazz Age. Twenty-First Century Books. London Review of Books.

Retrieved February 24, The Times-Picayune. New Orleans, Louisiana. In Assadi, Jamal; Freedman, William eds. New York: Peter Lang.

May 3, The Chicago Daily Tribune. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company. Lost City: Fitzgerald's New York 1st ed.

Retrieved May 21, University of South Carolina Press. May The English Journal. American Literature. Retrieved July 4, Retrieved July 27, Scott Fitzgerald Ventures".

New York Evening World. Critical Companion to F. Infobase Publishing. London : Continuum Publishing. New York Herald Tribune.

April 12, Vanderbilt, Arthur T. Cover Design by Dennis M. Cambridge University Press. Cleveland's Colorful Characters.

Murrells Inlet : Covenant Books. June 23, The Saturday Evening Post. Aguirre, Abby November 4, The New York Times.

Retrieved April 1, The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 3, Retrieved July 11, Retrieved July 10, His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle.

His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice.

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.

He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble.

Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy in modern times. None of Alexander's contemporaries, however, are known to have explicitly described Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion as sexual, though the pair was often compared to Achilles and Patroclus , whom classical Greek culture painted as a couple.

Aelian writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.

According to Diodorus Siculus, Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, [] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.

Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons.

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.

This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies.

Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.

The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.

Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging. In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila.

Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.

Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.

Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.

Pausanias writes that Alexander wanted to dig the Mimas mountain today at the Karaburun area , but he didn't succeed.

He also mentions that this was the only unsuccessful project of Alexander. Arrian wrote that Aristobulus said that the Icarus island modern Failaka Island in the Persian Gulf had this name because Alexander ordered the island to be named like this, after the Icarus island in the Aegean Sea.

Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.

Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons.

When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time.

In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.

This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages , [] containing many dubious stories, [] and was translated into numerous languages.

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.

The Alexander Romance , in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.

Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.

In pre-Islamic Middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak , meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.

The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn literally "the Two-Horned One" mentioned in the Quran is believed by scholars to be based on later legends of Alexander.

The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God".

According to Josephus , Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.

This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. In Greek Anthology there are poems referring to Alexander. In popular culture, the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden included a song titled "Alexander the Great" on their album Somewhere in Time.

Written by bass player Steve Harris , the song retells Alexander's life. Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.

Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia. For other uses, see Alexander the Great disambiguation. King of Macedonia.

Alexander Mosaic c. Hegemon of Hellenic League Strategos autokrator of Greece. Royal titulary. Further information: History of Macedonia ancient kingdom.

Further information: Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Main article: Alexander's Balkan campaign. Further information: Siege of Gaza.

Further information: Battle of Gaugamela. Further information: Battle of the Persian Gate. Main article: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. Main article: Death of Alexander the Great.

See also: Tomb of Alexander the Great. Main articles: Partition of Babylon and Diadochi. Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander the Great.

Main article: Hellenistic period. Further information: List of cities founded by Alexander the Great. Main article: Hellenistic civilization.

Main article: Alexander the Great in legend. Main article: Historiography of Alexander the Great. Ancestors of Alexander the Great 8.

Arrhidaeus 4. Amyntas III of Macedon 2. Philip II of Macedon Sirras 5. Eurydice of Macedon 1. Alexander III of Macedon Alcetas I of Epirus 6.

Neoptolemus I of Epirus 3. Olympias of Epirus. History portal Greece portal Iran portal Egypt portal War portal. The Macedonians were a Greek tribe.

Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the Great was Greek. By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire , adding it to Macedon's European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks the ' Ecumene '.

For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general; [] Julius Caesar wept on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved so little by the same age; [] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander'; [] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.

There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered.

However, Arrian , who used Ptolemy as a source, said that Alexander crossed with more than 5, horse and 30, foot; Diodorus quoted the same totals, but listed 5, horse and 32, foot.

Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which Polyaenus , in his Stratagems of War 5.

Primary sources Arrian Anabasis Alexandri The Campaigns of Alexander. Penguin Books. Rolfe, John ed. History of Alexander. Loeb Classical Library.

Retrieved 28 April CH Oldfather, translator. Perseus Project. Retrieved 14 November Plutarch Perrin, Bernadotte ed.

Plutarch, Alexander. Retrieved 6 December Babbitt, Frank Cole ed. On the Fortune of Alexander.

Retrieved 26 November Justin ed. John Selby Watson, translator. Forum romanum. Secondary sources Barnett, C. Moses in the Hieroglyphs.

Retrieved 13 January Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. New York: Cambridge University Press. Alexander the Great. The upside-down tree: India's changing culture.

Forgotten empire: the world of ancient Persia. University of California Press. Princeton University Press. Morality and custom in ancient Greece.

Indiana University Press. Mani: Travels in the Southern Peloponnese. New York Book Review. Mute dreams, blind owls, and dispersed knowledges: Persian poesis in the transnational circuitry.

Duke University Press. Alexander the conqueror: the epic story of the warrior king. Da Capo Press.

The Search for Alexander. The Great Armies of Antiquity. New York: Routledge. The Fall of Carthage. Most, Glenn W; Settis, Salvatore eds. The Classical Tradition.

Harvard University Press. Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age. London: Phoenix. Sources for Alexander the Great. Cambridge University Press.

A History of Greece to BC. Cambridge University. The language of the New Testament. Wm B Eerdmans.

Rubicon: Triumph and Tragedy in the Roman Republic. In Zacharia, K. India: A History. Grove Press. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Lakshmi Narain Agarwal. Camberwell, Victoria: Penguin. Outsiders in the Greek cities in the fourth century BC.

Retrieved 28 December Alexander the Great: Greece and Rome— Alexander the Great: A New History. Dictionary of Scientific Biography.

The Pilgrimage of Buddhism and a Buddhist Pilgrimage. Laurier Books. The Nature of Alexander the Great. International dictionary of historic places.

Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, — A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World. In Schmeling, Gareth L ed.

The Novel in the Ancient World. Achäologische Jahrbook 9. History of Ancient India. Alexander the Great: A Reader.

Palgrave MacMillan. Badian, Ernst Beazley, JD ; Ashmole, B Greek Sculpture and Painting. The Greek Experience. Boardman, John Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire 2 ed.

London: English Universities Press. Rufus, Quintus Curtius. U Chicago. Retrieved 16 November Cartledge, Paul Alexander the Great and the Logistics of the Macedonian Army.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Fawcett, Bill, ed. Fuller, JFC The Generalship of Alexander the Great. Green, Peter Alexander of Macedon: — BC.

A Historical Biography. Greene, Robert The 48 Laws of Power. Hammond, NGL Oxford University Press. Alexander the Great: King, Commander, and Statesman 3 ed.

London: Bristol Classical Press. The Genius of Alexander the Great. Mercer, Charles The Way of Alexander the Great 1 ed.

Boston: American Heritage Inc. McCrindle, J. A Synoptic History of Classical Rhetoric. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Nandan, Y; Bhavan, BV Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.

O'Brien, John Maxwell Alexander the Great: The Invisible Enemy. London: Routledge. Prevas, John Da Capo. Roisman, Joseph, ed. Alexander the Great Ancient and Modern Perspectives.

Problems in European Civilization. Savill, Agnes Alexander the Great and His Time 3 ed. Stewart, Andrew Hellenistic Culture and Society.

Stoneman, Richard Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend. Yale University Press. Tarn, WW Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wheeler, Benjamin Ide Alexander the Great; the merging of East and West in universal history. New York: GP Putnam's sons. Wilcken, Ulrich [].

Worthington, Ian Alexander the Great: Man And God. Alexander the Great at Wikipedia's sister projects. Kings of Macedon. Lysimachus Pyrrhus Ptolemy Keraunos Meleager.

Hellenistic rulers. Lysimachus Ptolemy Epigonos. Hellenistic rulers were preceded by Hellenistic satraps in most of their territories.

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The Greek cities on the western coast of Anatolia revolted until the news arrived that Philip had been murdered and had been succeeded by his young son Alexander.

The Macedonians were demoralized by Philip's death and were subsequently defeated near Magnesia by the Achaemenids under the command of the mercenary Memnon of Rhodes.

This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.

After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus , Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis ; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities.

Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby. Further south, at Halicarnassus , in Caria , Alexander successfully waged his first large-scale siege , eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates , to withdraw by sea.

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.

From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos , Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.

After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus.

Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis , and a fabulous treasure.

Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated.

However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery.

Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana modern Hamadan while Alexander captured Babylon.

From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa , one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury.

Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates in the modern Zagros Mountains which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.

On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Even as he watched the city burn, Alexander immediately began to regret his decision.

Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?

Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him. This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia.

Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate "The Furthest" in modern Tajikistan.

In BC, Spitamenes , who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy , one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed.

Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai.

After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace. During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis , either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors.

This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas , was executed for failing to alert Alexander.

The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion , who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana , was assassinated at Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.

Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black , during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda modern day Samarkand in Uzbekistan , in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgmental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.

Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages.

His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus , was implicated in the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander , Arrian states that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after.

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater , an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard", in charge of Macedon.

In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana Raoxshna in Old Iranian to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent.

He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan , to come to him and submit to his authority.

Omphis Indian name Ambhi , the ruler of Taxila , whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes Jhelum , complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas , refused to submit.

Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1, talents in gold".

Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund , [] supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5, men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River.

After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus Indian name Puru , to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy.

Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus.

A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip , son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BC , as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus , BC.

Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought against him from the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle.

According to Curtius , "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble.

In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.

He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis Beas.

Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River Beas , refusing to march farther east.

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.

For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.

Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland".

Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi in modern-day Multan and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.

Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania modern southern Iran with general Craterus , and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus , while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran.

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa.

His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units.

The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.

Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion , died of illness or poisoning.

Plutarch 's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus , and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.

The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them.

Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, [] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death.

Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication, [] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.

Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence, [] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas, [] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.

Several natural causes diseases have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.

The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion 's death may also have contributed to his declining health. Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket.

While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis.

Ptolemy IX Lathyros , one of Ptolemy's final successors, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.

This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. However, the memorial was found to be dedicated to the dearest friend of Alexander the Great, Hephaestion.

Pompey , Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose off. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use.

His son and successor, Caracalla , a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy.

The so-called " Alexander Sarcophagus ", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum , is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting.

Demades likened the Macedonian army, after the death of Alexander, to the blinded Cyclop , due to the many random and disorderly movements that it made.

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal story.

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus , Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.

However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager , rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion.

Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power.

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.

It included:. Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander.

He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, [88] in the manner of a Macedonian king.

In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, perhaps 13, infantry with 5, cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40, By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry.

This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins.

Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.

The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style.

Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.

Greek biographer Plutarch c. The outward appearance of Alexander is best represented by the statues of him which Lysippus made, and it was by this artist alone that Alexander himself thought it fit that he should be modelled.

For those peculiarities which many of his successors and friends afterwards tried to imitate, namely, the poise of the neck, which was bent slightly to the left, and the melting glance of his eyes, this artist has accurately observed.

Apelles, however, in painting him as wielder of the thunder-bolt, did not reproduce his complexion, but made it too dark and swarthy.

Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face. Moreover, that a very pleasant odour exhaled from his skin and that there was a fragrance about his mouth and all his flesh, so that his garments were filled with it, this we have read in the Memoirs of Aristoxenus.

The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum : that one eye was dark and the other light.

British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:.

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough.

His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle.

His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.

He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself. He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.

Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble. Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy in modern times.

None of Alexander's contemporaries, however, are known to have explicitly described Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion as sexual, though the pair was often compared to Achilles and Patroclus , whom classical Greek culture painted as a couple.

Aelian writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.

According to Diodorus Siculus, Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, [] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.

Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris. At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons.

Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.

This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies.

Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.

The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.

Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging.

In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements. Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.

Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.

Pausanias writes that Alexander wanted to dig the Mimas mountain today at the Karaburun area , but he didn't succeed. He also mentions that this was the only unsuccessful project of Alexander.

Arrian wrote that Aristobulus said that the Icarus island modern Failaka Island in the Persian Gulf had this name because Alexander ordered the island to be named like this, after the Icarus island in the Aegean Sea.

Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.

Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons.

When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time.

In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.

This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages , [] containing many dubious stories, [] and was translated into numerous languages.

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.

The Alexander Romance , in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.

Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.

In pre-Islamic Middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak , meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.

The figure of Dhul-Qarnayn literally "the Two-Horned One" mentioned in the Quran is believed by scholars to be based on later legends of Alexander.

The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God". According to Josephus , Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.

This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. In Greek Anthology there are poems referring to Alexander. In popular culture, the British heavy metal band Iron Maiden included a song titled "Alexander the Great" on their album Somewhere in Time.

Written by bass player Steve Harris , the song retells Alexander's life. Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.

Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia.

For other uses, see Alexander the Great disambiguation. King of Macedonia. Alexander Mosaic c. Hegemon of Hellenic League Strategos autokrator of Greece.

Royal titulary. Further information: History of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Further information: Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom.

Main article: Alexander's Balkan campaign. Further information: Siege of Gaza. Further information: Battle of Gaugamela. Further information: Battle of the Persian Gate.

Main article: Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. Main article: Death of Alexander the Great. See also: Tomb of Alexander the Great.

Main articles: Partition of Babylon and Diadochi. Main article: Personal relationships of Alexander the Great. Main article: Hellenistic period.

Further information: List of cities founded by Alexander the Great. Main article: Hellenistic civilization. Main article: Alexander the Great in legend.

Main article: Historiography of Alexander the Great. Ancestors of Alexander the Great 8. Arrhidaeus 4. Amyntas III of Macedon 2. Philip II of Macedon Sirras 5.

Eurydice of Macedon 1. Alexander III of Macedon Alcetas I of Epirus 6. Neoptolemus I of Epirus 3. Olympias of Epirus.

History portal Greece portal Iran portal Egypt portal War portal. The Macedonians were a Greek tribe.

Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the Great was Greek. By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire , adding it to Macedon's European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks the ' Ecumene '.

For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general; [] Julius Caesar wept on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved so little by the same age; [] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander'; [] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.

There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Pausanias was actually hired to murder Philip.

All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered. However, Arrian , who used Ptolemy as a source, said that Alexander crossed with more than 5, horse and 30, foot; Diodorus quoted the same totals, but listed 5, horse and 32, foot.

Diodorus also referred to an advance force already present in Asia, which Polyaenus , in his Stratagems of War 5.

Primary sources Arrian Anabasis Alexandri The Campaigns of Alexander. Penguin Books. Rolfe, John ed.

History of Alexander. Loeb Classical Library. Retrieved 28 April CH Oldfather, translator. Perseus Project. Retrieved 14 November Plutarch Perrin, Bernadotte ed.

Plutarch, Alexander. Retrieved 6 December Babbitt, Frank Cole ed. On the Fortune of Alexander. Retrieved 26 November Justin ed.

John Selby Watson, translator. Forum romanum. Secondary sources Barnett, C. Moses in the Hieroglyphs. Retrieved 13 January Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy.

New York: Cambridge University Press. Alexander the Great. The upside-down tree: India's changing culture. Forgotten empire: the world of ancient Persia.

University of California Press. Princeton University Press. Morality and custom in ancient Greece. Indiana University Press.

Mani: Travels in the Southern Peloponnese. New York Book Review. Mute dreams, blind owls, and dispersed knowledges: Persian poesis in the transnational circuitry.

Duke University Press. Alexander the conqueror: the epic story of the warrior king. Retrieved July 2, Retrieved 15 May Hulu Press Site.

Archived from the original on May 4, Retrieved April 28, New York Magazine. Archived from the original on May 16, Retrieved May 17, Archived from the original on May 23, USA Today.

Archived from the original on May 15, Retrieved May 15, Archived from the original on May 21, Archived from the original on June 7, Archived from the original on November 20, Retrieved November 20, Archived from the original on February 12, Retrieved February 11, Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved November 21, Archived from the original on November 28, Retrieved November 27, Retrieved May 16, The Press.

Archived from the original on November 7, Retrieved November 2, Archived from the original on January 23, Lincolnshire Reporter.

Archived from the original on February 21, Archived from the original on February 16, Retrieved February 12, Rotten Tomatoes.

Retrieved May 22, Retrieved July 28, Retrieved Hulu original programming. Helstrom The Orville season 3; Animaniacs

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